Google scholar arxiv informatics ads IJAIS publications are indexed with Google Scholar, NASA ADS, Informatics et. al.

Call for Paper


January Edition 2023

International Journal of Applied Information Systems solicits high quality original research papers for the January 2023 Edition of the journal. The last date of research paper submission is December 15, 2022.

A Survey on Usage of Ontology in Different Domain

N. Madurai Meenachi, M. Sai Baba Published in Information Sciences

International Journal of Applied Information Systems
Year of Publication 2012
© 2010 by IJAIS Journal
Download full text
  1. Madurai N Meenachi and Sai M Baba. Article: A Survey on Usage of Ontology in Different Domain. International Journal of Applied Information Systems 4(2):46-55, September 2012. BibTeX

    	author = "N. Madurai Meenachi and M. Sai Baba",
    	title = "Article: A Survey on Usage of Ontology in Different Domain",
    	journal = "International Journal of Applied Information Systems",
    	year = 2012,
    	volume = 4,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "46-55",
    	month = "September",
    	note = "Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA"


A survey has been presented on the usage of ontology in various domains like Medical, Agriculture, Geosciences, Education, Marine, Communication, Computer, Chemical, Defence, Linguistic etc. A summary of the available ontology developed in various domains is given and no attempt has been made to evaluate them. Only a broad picture of ontology applications in various domains practiced today are described. In some cases details like number of concepts, relationship, classes and subclasses defined are also given. The survey indicated that considerable effort has gone in the development of ontology in the domains of medical, education, computer science. It is noted that rather limited effort has gone into the development of ontology in the domains of power plants and atomic energy.


  1. Gruber, T. R. 1993. A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specification Knowledge Acquisition. 199-220.
  2. Michael Grüninger. , Steven Shapiro. , Mark S. Fox. , and Harald Weppner. 2011. "Combining RFID with ontologies to create smart object", International Journal of Production Research,Taylor and Francis. 1-23.
  3. Gruninger, M. and Fox, M. S. 1995. Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of Ontologies. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing.
  4. Natalya F. Noy. and Deborah L. McGuinness. 2001. Ontology development 101 a guide to creating your first ontology,http://protege. stanford. edu/publications/ontology_development/ontology101-noy-mcguinness. html
  5. Ding, Y. and Foo, S. 2002. "Ontology Research and Development Part 2 - A review of ontology mapping and evolving", Journal of information science, 375-388.
  6. Dagobert Soergel. , Boris Lauser. , Anita Liang. , Frehiwot Fisseha. ,Johannes Keizer. ,and Stephen Katz. 2004. "Reengineering Thesauri for New Applications: the AGROVOC Example", Journal of Digital Information. 1-23.
  7. Salvador Sánchez-Alonso. and Miguel-Angel Sicilia. 2009. Using an AGROVOC-based ontology for the description of learning resources on organic agriculture, Metadata and Semantics, Springer. 481-492.
  8. Margherita Sini. , Sachit Rajbhandari. , Maziar Amirhosseni. , Gudrun Johannsen. , Ahsan Morshed. , and Johannes Keizer. 2012. The AGROVOC Concept Server Workbench System: Empowering management of agricultural vocabularies with semantics Scientific and Technical Information and Rural Development. In Proceedings of IAALD XIIIth World Congress, Montpellier.
  9. Yuehua Yang. , Junping Du. , and Meiyu Liang. 2011. Study on food safety semantic retrieval system based on domain ontology. In Proceedings of IEEE Cloud Computing and Intelligence Systems. 40 – 44.
  10. Ling Cao. and Lin He. 2008. Domain Ontology-based Construction of Agriculture Literature Retrieval System. In Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing , 1- 3.
  11. Howard Beck. , Kelly Morgan. , Yunchul Jung. , Sabine Grunwald. , Ho-young Kwon. , and Jin Wu. 2010. Ontology-based simulation in agricultural systems modeling, Agricultural Systems, Elsevier. 463–477.
  12. Ho-Young Kwon. , Sabine Grunwald. , Howard W. Beck. , Yunchul Jung. , Samira H Daroub. , Timothy A. Lang. , and Kelly T. Morgan. 2010. Ontology-based simulation of water flow in organic soils applied to Florida sugarcane, Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier. 112–122.
  13. Wang Hong. , Gao Siting. , and Wang Jing. 2011. The Application Research of Description Logic in Civil Aviation Domain Ontology. In Proceedings of International Conference on Management and Service Science, 1 – 4.
  14. Shulamit Avraham. , Chih-WeiTung. , Katica Ilic. , Pankaj Jaiswal. , Elizabeth A. Kellogg. , Susan McCouch. , Anuradha Pujar. , Leonore Reiser,Seung Y Rhee. , Martin M Sachs. , Mary Schaeffer. , Lincoln Stein,Peter Stevens. , Leszek Vincent. , Felipe Zapata. , and Doreen Ware. 2008. "The Plant Ontology Database: a community resource for plant structure and developmental stages controlled vocabulary and annotations", Nucleic Acids Research, Oxford University Press. D449-D454.
  15. Pankaj Jaiswal. , Shulamit Avraham. , Katica Ilic. , Elizabeth A Kellogg. , Susan McCouch. , Anuradha Pujar. , Leonore Reiser. , Seung Y Rhee. , Martin M. Sachs. , Mary Schaeffer. , Lincoln Stein. , Peter Stevens. , Leszek Vincent. , Doreen Ware. , and Felipe Zapata. 2005. "Plant Ontology (PO): a controlled vocabulary of plant structures and growth stages", Comparative and Functional Genomics. 388–397.
  16. Fan Jing. , Zhang Xin-pei. , and Dong Tian-yang. 2008. Research of Plant Domain Knowledge Model Based on Ontology, In Proceedings of IEEE 3rd International Conference on Innovative Computing Information and Control.
  17. Goble, C. A. , Stevens,R. , Ng,G. , Bechhofer, S. ,Paton, N. W. , Baker, P. G. , Peim, M. , and Brass, A. 2001. "Transparent access to multiple Bioinformatics information sources", IBM Systems Journal, 532-551.
  18. Antje Chang. , Maurice Scheer. , Andreas Grote. , Ida Schomburg. , and Dietmar Schomburg. , 2009. "BRENDA, AMENDA and FRENDA the enzyme information system: new content and tools", Nucleic Acids Research, Oxford University Press, D588-92.
  19. Fernández López. , Asunción Gómez-Pérez. , and Juan Pazos Sierra. 1999. "Building a Chemical Ontology Using Methontology and the Ontology Design Environment, Mariano", IEEE Intelligent Systems. IEEE, 37-46.
  20. Paula de Matos. ,Rafael Alcántara. , Adriano Dekker. , Marcus Ennis. , Janna Hastings. , Kenneth Haug. , Inmaculada Spiteri. ,Steve Turner. , and Christoph Steinbeck. 2010. "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest: an update", Nucleic Acids Research. Oxford University Press, D249–D254.
  21. Yi Zhang Li. , Li Tan. , Jie Liu. , and ChongChong Yu. 2010. A Domain Ontology Construction Method Towards Healthy Housing. In Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Information Engineering and Computer Science.
  22. Eero Hyvonen. 2006. FinnONTO—Building the Basis for a National SemanticWeb Infrastructure in Finland. In Proceedings of the 12th Finnish AI Conference STeP.
  23. Lillian N. Cassel. , Gordon Davies. , William Fone. , Anneke Hacquebard. , John Impagliazzo. , Richard LeBlanc. , Joyce Currie Little. , Andrew McGettrick. , and Michela Pedrona. 2007. The computing ontology: application in education. In Proceedings of 38th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education.
  24. Perich, F. , Finin, T. , and Joshi, A. 2004. SOUPA: Standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications, 2004. In Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. 258 – 267.
  25. HongZhou. , FengChen. , and HongjiYang. 2008. Developing Application Specific Ontology for Program Comprehension by Combining Domain Ontology with Code Ontology, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Quality Software, 225-234.
  26. Botzenhardt. , Alexander Maedche. , Juri Wiesner. , Developing a Domain Ontology for Software Product Management, 2011. In Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Software Product Management, 7-16.
  27. Dongyeop Kang. , Eugene Seo. , Sookyung Kim. , and Ho-Jin Choi. 2009. Automatically Learning Robot Domain Ontology from Collective Knowledge for Home Service Robots, In Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, 1766-1771.
  28. Vasileios Mezaris. , Ioannis Kompatsiaris. , Nikolaos V. Boulgouris. , and Michael G. Strintzis. 2004. "Real-Time Compressed-Domain Spatiotemporal Segmentation and Ontologies for Video Indexing and Retrieval, Circuits and Systems for Video Technology", IEEE Transactions, 606 – 621.
  29. Hans-Jorg Happel. , and Stefan Seedorf. 2006. Applications of Ontologies in Software Engineering, In Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Semantic Web Enabled Software Engineering .
  30. Alfred Ka Yiu Wong. , Pradeep Ray. , Parameswaran, N. , and John Strassner. 2005. "Ontology Mapping for the Interoperability Problem in Network Management", IEEE journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2058 - 2068.
  31. Casey Breen. , Latifur Khan. , and Arunkumar Ponnusamy. 2002. Image Classification Using Neural Networks and Ontologies. In Proceedings of IEEE conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, 98-102.
  32. Missikoff, M. and Taglino, F. 2003. SymOntoX: a Web-ontology tool for ebusiness domains. In Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering. 343 – 346.
  33. Jin Tan Yang. , Min Jey Hwang. , and Yuan Fong Chu. 2005. A Study on Searching and Recommending SCORM CPs by Ontological Support. In Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.
  34. Darina Dicheva. , Sergey Sosnovsky. , Tatiana Gavrilova. , and Peter Brusilovsky. 2005. Ontological Web Portal for Educational Ontologies. In Proceedings of International Workshop on Applications of Semantic Web technologies for E-Learning.
  35. Darina Dicheva. and Lora Aroyo. 2004. A Minimalist Approach to Support Ontology-driven Educational Information Systems Communication. In Proceedings of International Workshop on Applications of Semantic.
  36. Lora Aroyo. and Darina Dicheva. 2004. "The New Challenges for E-learning: The Educational Semantic Web". Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 59-69.
  37. Monique Grandbastien. , Faiçal Azouaou. , Cyrille Desmoulins. , Richard Faerber. , Dominique Leclet. , and Céline Quénu-Joiron. 2007. Sharing an ontology in Education: Lessons learnt from the OURAL project. In Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.
  38. Dai Xiaopeng. and Li Xu. 2010. Study of Learning Source Ontology modeling in Remote education. In Proceedings of International Conference Multimedia Technology, 1–4.
  39. Feng Yang. and Youquan Chen. 2010. Ontology based application framework for Network Education Resources Library. In Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Education Technology and Computer Science,423 – 426.
  40. Marian Bucos. , Bogdan Dragulescu. , and Marius Veltan. 2010. Designing a Semantic Web Ontology for E-learning in Higher Education. In Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Symposium on Electronics and Telecommunications, 415 – 418.
  41. ClaudioCubillos. , FabrizioLamberti. , and Claudio Demartini. 2008. Integration at Vocational Education and Training Level through Mapped Ontologies. In Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology,117–122.
  42. Adil Laoufi. , S. Mouhim. , El Hassan Megder. , and Chihab Cherkaoui. 2011. An Ontology Based Architecture to Support the Knowledge Management In Higher Education. In Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, 1–6.
  43. Josep Prieto-Blázquez. , Ivan García-Torà. , Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí. , and Ana-Elena Guerrero-Roldán. 2008. Virtual Laboratory Ontology for Engineering Education. In Proceedings of 38th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, S2F-1 to S2F-6.
  44. Mesaric, J. and Dukic, B. 2007. An Approach to Creating Domain Ontologies for Higher Education in Economics. InProceeding of 29th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, 75 – 80.
  45. Stewart, C. , Chandramouli. K. , Cristea,A. , Brailsford, T. , and Izquierdo,E. , 2008. Cultural Artefacts in Education: Analysis, Ontologies and Implementation. In Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, 706 – 709.
  46. Bhowmick, P. K. , Bhowmick, S. ,Roy, D. , Sarkar, S. , and Basu, A. 2007. Sahayika: A framework for participatory authoring of knowledge structures for education domain. In Proceedings of International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development, 1 – 11.
  47. Zhaoxu Wang. , 2011. Research on Remote Education System Using Semantic Web. In Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology, 2815- 2818.
  48. Kum Leng Chin. and Elizabeth Chang. 2011. A Sustainable ICT Education Ontology. In Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies, Korea, 350-354.
  49. Ian C Chow. and Jonathan J Webster. 2006. Mapping FrameNet and SUMO with WordNet Verb: Statistical Distribution of Lexical-Ontological Realization. In Proceedings of 5th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence .
  50. Mohamad Eid. , Ramiro Liscano. , and Abdulmotaleb El Saddik. 2007. A Universal Ontology for Sensor Networks Data. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, 59-62.
  51. Rob Raskin. 2003. The semantic web for Earth and environmental terminology (SWEET). In Proceedings of Workshop on Semantic Web Technologies for Searching and Retrieving Scientific Data.
  52. Robert G. Raskin. and Michael J. Pan. 2005. "Knowledge representation in Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET)". Journal of Computers & Geosciences, 1119–1125.
  53. Zaki Malik. , Abdelmounaam Rezgui. , Brahim Medjahed. , Mourad Ouzzani. , and A Krishna Sinha. 2010. "Semantic Integration in Geosciences", International Journal of Semantic Computing, 301–330.
  54. Viral Parekh. , Jin-Ping Gwo. , and Tim Finin. 2004. Ontology based Semantic Metadata for GeoScience Data. In Proceedings of International Conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering, 485-490.
  55. Klien,E. , Lutz, M. , and Kuhn,W. 2006. "Ontology-based discovery of geographic information services—An application in disaster management", Journal of Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Elsevier, 102–123.
  56. Gang Liu. , Yanni Wang. , and Chonglong Wu. 2010. Research and Application of Geological Hazard Domain Ontology, In Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Geoinformatics , 1-6.
  57. Gomez-Perez, A. , Ramirez, J. , and Villazon-Terrazas, B. 2007. "An Ontology for Modelling Human Resources Management Based on Standards", Lecture Notes In Computer Science, 534-541,Springer-Verlag.
  58. Panceras Talita. , Alvin W. Yeo. , and Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer. 2010. Challenges in Building Domain Ontology for Minority Languages. In Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Applications and Industrial Electronics, 574 – 578.
  59. Saidah Saad. , Naomie Salim. , Hakim Zainal. , and Zurina Muda. 2011. A process for building domain ontology: An experience in developing Solat ontology. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 1-5.
  60. Rui Yao. and Jin Zhang. 2010. Design and Implementation of Chinese Ancient Poetry Learning System Based on Domain Ontology. In Proceedings of International Conference on e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, 460 – 463.
  61. Fan Zhu. , Apple W P Fok. , Horace H S Ip. , and Jiaheng Cao. 2008. ENGOnto: Integrated Multiple English Learning Ontology for Personalized Education. In Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, 210-213.
  62. Mao-sheng Lai . and Xiu-dan Yang. 2001. Ontology-based Metadata Schema for Chinese Digital Libraries. http://citeseerx. ist. psu. edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10. 1. 1. 135. 7833.
  63. Yi-hsing Chang. 2007. Automatically constructing a domain ontology for document classification. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 1942 – 1947.
  64. Luis Bermudez. ,John Graybeal. , and Robert Arko. 2006. A Marine Platforms Ontology: Experiences and Lessons. In Proceedings of the Semantic Sensor Networks Workshop.
  65. Rommel N. Carvalho. , Richard Haberlin. , Paulo Cesar G. Costa. , Kathryn, B. Laskey. , and Chang, K. C. 2011. Modeling a Probabilistic Ontology for Maritime Domain Awareness. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference Information Fusion, 1 – 8.
  66. YUN Hongyan. 2009. Research on Building Ocean Domain Ontology. In Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering, 146 – 150.
  67. Paul Witherell. , Sundar Krishnamurty. , Ian Grosse. , and Jack Wileden. 2009. A Meronomic relatedness measure for domain ontologies using concept probability and multiset theory. In Proceedings of the 28th North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Annual Conference.
  68. Ili Farhana Md Mahtar. and Nor Azan Mat Zin. 2010. Mathematical Knowledge Representation for Education Semantic Web based on Learning Style. In Proceeding of International Symposium on Information Technology.
  69. Harris, M. A. , Clark,J. , Ireland, A. , Lomax, J. , Ashburner, M. , Foulger,R. , Eilbeck,K. , Lewis,S. , Marshall,B. , Mungall,C. , Richter,J. , Rubin,G. M. , Blake,J. A. , Bult,C. , Dolan,M. ,Drabkin,H. , Eppig,J. T. , Hill,D. P. , NiL. ,Ringwald,M. , Balakrishnan,R. , Cherry,J. M. , Christie,K. R. , Costanzo,M. C. , Dwight,S. S. , Engel,S. , Fisk,D. G. , Hirschman,J. E. , Hong,E. L. ,Nash,R. S. , Sethuraman,A. , Theesfeld,C. L. , Botstein,D. , Dolinski, K. , Feierbach, B. , Berardini, T. , Mundodi,S. , Rhee,S. Y. , Apweiler,R. , Barrell,D. , Camon,E. , Dimmer,E. , Lee,V. , Chisholm,R. , Gaudet,P. , Kibbe,W. , Kishore,R. , Schwarz,E. M. , Sternberg,P. , Gwinn,M. , Hannick,L. , Wortman,J. , Berriman, M. , Wood, V. , de la Cruz, N. , Tonellato, P. ,Jaiswal, P. , Seigfried, T. , White, R. , and Gene Ontology Consortium. 2004. "The Gene Ontology (GO) database and informatics resource", Nucleic Acids Research. Oxford University Press.
  70. Melissa A Haendel. , Georgios V Gkoutos. , Suzanna E Lewis. , and Christopher J Mungall. 2009. "Uberon: towards a comprehensive multi-species anatomy ontology", Nature Proceedings.
  71. Whetzel,P. L. , Parkinson,H. , Causton,H. C. , Fan,L. ,Fostel, J. , Fragoso, G. , Game, L. , Heiskanen, M. , Morrison, N. , Rocca-Serra, P. , Sansone, S. A. , Taylor ,C. , White, J. , and Stoeckert,C. J. Jr. 2006. The MGED Ontology: a resource for semantics-based description of microarray experiments. Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, USA.
  72. Carol J. Bult. , Janana T. Eppig. , James A. Kadin. , Joel E. Richardson. , and Judith A. Balke. 2008. "The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): mouse biology and model systems", Nucleic Acids Research, Oxford University Press, D724-D728.
  73. Hoffman, H. , Arnoldi, C. , and Chuang, I. 2005. The Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology: A Curated Semantic Network Utilizing Refseq Information. In Proceedings of Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing.
  74. Charles E. Kahn. , David S. Channin. , and Daniel L. Rubin. 2006. "An Ontology for PACS Integration", Journal of Digital Imaging, 1-12.
  75. Werner Ceustersa. , Barry Smithb. , Anand Kumarb. , and Christoffel Dhaena. 2004. "Ontology-Based Error Detection in SNOMED-CT". PubMed. 482-6.
  76. Olivier Bodenreider. 2004. "The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS): Integrating biomedical terminology", Nucleic Acids Research, Oxford University Press, D267-D270.
  77. Zeeberg, B. R. , Feng, W. , Wang, G. , Wang, M. D. , Fojo, A. T. , Sunshine,M. , Narasimhan,S. , Kane,D. W. , Reinhold, W. C. , Lababidi, S. , Bussey, K. J. , Riss, J. , Barrett, J. C. , and Weinstein, J. N . 2003. "GoMiner: a resource for biological interpretation of genomic and proteomic data". Journal of Genome Biology. BioMed Central. R28.
  78. Christopher J. O. Baker. , René Witte. , Arash Shaban-Nejad. , Greg Butler. , and Volker Haarslev. 2005. The Fungal Web Ontology: Application Scenarios. In Proceedings of Bioinformatics and Genomics 4th International Semantic Web Conference.
  79. Arash Shaban-Nejad. , Christopher J. O. Baker. , Volker Haarslev. , and Greg Butler. 2005. The Fungal Web Ontology: Semantic Web Challenges in Bioinformatics and Genomics, http://citeseerx. ist. psu. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. 1. 1. 93. 6919&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  80. Nona Nader. and Rene Witte. 2010. Ontology-Based Extraction and Summarization of Protein Mutation Impact Information. In Proceedings of Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing.
  81. Jaime Cantais. , David Dominguez. , Valeria Gigante. , Loredana Laera. , and Valentina Tamma. 2005. An example of food ontology for diabetes control. In Proceedings of Workshop on Ontology.
  82. Luciana V. Castilho. , Heitor S. Lopes. , Cesar A. Tacla. 2008. Modeling and Building an Ontology for Neuropediatric Physiotherapy Domain. In Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 210 – 215.
  83. Lazzari,C. De. , Guerrieri,E. , and Pisanelli, D. M. 2003. A Domain Ontology for Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems. In Proceedings of IEEE Computers in Cardiology, 417 – 419.
  84. Jan Paralic. and Ivan Kostial. 2003. Ontology-based Information Retrieval. In Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Information and Intelligent systems, 23 - 28.
  85. Clement Jonquet. , Paea LePendu. , Sean M. Falconer. , Adrien Coulet. , Natalya F. Noy. , Mark A. Musen. , and Nigam H. Shah. 2011. " NCBO Resource Index: Ontology-Based Search and Mining of Biomedical Resources", Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web,Elsevier, 316-324.
  86. Jennifer Golbeck. , Gilberto Fragoso. , Frank Hartel. , Jim Hendler. , Jim Oberthaler. , and Bijan Parsia. 2003. " The National Cancer Institute's Thésaurus and Ontology", Journal of Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, Elsevier, 75–80.
  87. Landon T. Detwiler. , Emily Chung. , Ann Li. , José L. V. Mejino Jr. , Augusto V. Agoncillo. , James F. Brinkley. , Cornelius Rosse. , and Linda G. Shapiro. , 2004. "A Relation-Centric Query Engine for the Foundational Model of Anatomy",PubMed,Structural Informatics Group publication, 341-5.
  88. Mei-ying Jia. , Bing-ru Yang. , De-quan Zheng. , and Wei-cong Sun. 2009. Research on Domain Ontology Construction in Military Intelligence. In Proceedings of Third International Symposium Intelligent Information Technology Application, 116–119.
  89. Liu Yang. , Zhigang Hu. , Jun Long. , and Tao Guo. , 2011. 5W1H-based Conceptual Modeling Framework for Domain Ontology and its Application on STOP. In Proceedings of IEEE Seventh International Conference on Semantics, Knowledge and Grids. 203-206.
  90. Song Jun-feng. , Zhang Wei-Ming. , Xiao Wei-dong. , and Xu Zhen-ning. , 2005. Study on construction and integration of military domain ontology situation ontology and military rule ontology for network centric warfare. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference Publication on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service, 368–373.
  91. Laban, S. , Desouky, A. I. EI. , ElHefnawy,A. S. , and El-Gebaly, A. F. 2010. Ontology Potentials in Increasing Effectiveness of Safeguards and Nuclear weapon Non-proliferation Activities. In Proceedings of Symposium on International Safeguards. Preparing for Future Verification Challenges, IAEA conference.
  92. Junfang Shi. and Li Liu. , 2010. Web information extraction based on news domain ontology Theory. In Proceedings of IEEE 2nd Symposium on Web Society, 416-419.
  93. Zongxiao Yang. , Chuanye Cheng. , and Zhiqiang Feng. 2008. Construction of Ontology-based Safety Assessment System for Power Plants. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, 1092-1096.
  94. Khadir, M. T. and Klai, S. 2010. A steam turbine diagnostic maintenance system based on evaluative domain ontology. In Proceedings of International Conference on Machine and Web Intelligence, 360–367.
  95. Munir Merdan. , Gottfried Koppensteiner. , Ingo Hegny. , and Bernard Favre-Bulle. 2008. Application of an Ontology in a Transport Domain. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology. 1-6.


Semantic web, Ontology, web ontology language (OWL)