Google scholar arxiv informatics ads IJAIS publications are indexed with Google Scholar, NASA ADS, Informatics et. al.

Call for Paper


March Edition 2023

International Journal of Applied Information Systems solicits high quality original research papers for the March 2023 Edition of the journal. The last date of research paper submission is February 15, 2023.

Deep Learning an Overview

Fahad Masood Reda in Information Sciences

International Journal of Applied Information Systems
Year of Publication: 2019
Publisher: Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Authors:Fahad Masood Reda
Download full text
  1. Fahad Masood Reda. Deep Learning an Overview. International Journal of Applied Information Systems 12(21):14-18, June 2019. URL, DOI BibTeX

    	author = "Fahad Masood Reda",
    	title = "Deep Learning an Overview",
    	journal = "International Journal of Applied Information Systems",
    	issue_date = "June, 2019",
    	volume = 12,
    	number = 21,
    	month = "June",
    	year = 2019,
    	issn = "2249-0868",
    	pages = "14-18",
    	url = "",
    	doi = "10.5120/ijais2019451796",
    	publisher = "Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA",
    	address = "New York, USA"


Deep learning is an essential element in technological advancements globally in modern times. Understanding the different constituents that succeed deep learning through advanced AI is therefore paramount in dissecting the impact of deep learning in the society today. This text focuses on the working mechanisms of neural networks in detail. The paper explores the close relationship between the brain’s neurons and the artificial neural networks. The paper has been subdivided into subsections that cover important aspects of deep learning with respect to its application in resolving real-world problems that may be too challenging to solve using conventional means.


  1. Barnes, & Beck, J. (n.d). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Educational Data Mining.
  2. Basheer, I. A., & Hajmeer, M. (2000). Artificial neural networks: fundamentals, computing, design, and application. Journal of microbiological methods, 43(1), 3-31.
  3. Churchland, P. S. (1989). Neurophilosophy: Toward a unified science of the mind-brain. MIT press.
  4. Ekonomou, L. (2010). Greek long-term energy consumption prediction using artificial neural networks. Energy, 35(2), 512-517.
  5. Guo, X., Singh, S., Lee, H., Lewis, R. L., & Wang, X. (2014). Deep learning for real-time Atari gameplay using offline Monte-Carlo tree search planning. In Advances in neural information processing systems (pp. 3338-3346).
  6. Gupta, T. (2017). Deep Learning: Feedforward Neural Network. Towards Data Science. Retrieved from
  7. Haykin, S. (1996). Adaptive filter theory 3 rd edition Prentice-Hall., pp. 8–17
  8. Kak, S. C., Chen, Y., & Wang, L. (2010, August). Data Mining Using Surface and Deep Agents Based on Neural Networks. In AMCIS (p. 16).
  9. Le, J. (2018). The 10 Neural Network Architectures Machine Learning Researchers Need To Learn. Medium. Retrieved from
  10. LeCun, Y., & Bengio, Y. (1995). Convolutional networks for images, speech, and time series. The handbook of brain theory and neural networks, 3361(10), 1995.
  11. Lykourentzou et. al., (2009a). Dropout prediction in e-learning courses
  12. Marr, D., 1982. Vision, New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
  13. Papamitsiou, Z., & Economides, A. A. (2014). Learning analytics and educational data mining in practice: A systematic literature review of empirical evidence. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 49-64.
  14. Schmidhuber, J. (2013). Deep Learning in Neural Networks: An Overview. IDSA. Retrieved from˜juergen/DeepLearning8Oct2014.tex
  15. Suga, N. (1990). Cortical computational maps for auditory imaging. Neural networks, 3(1), 3-21.
  16. Suga, N. (1993, October). Computations of velocity and range in the bat auditory system for echo location. In Computational neuroscience (pp. 213-231). MIT Press.
  17. Teng, H., & Suga, N. (2017). Differences in velocity-information processing between two areas in the auditory cortex of mustached bats. Hearing research, 350, 68-81.
  18. Widrow, B., & Stearns, S.D., 1985. Adaptive Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


FeedForward Neural Network, Artificial Neurons, Activation Function, Deep Neural Network, Deep Learning